Although the detached period is 2004-until the current days. Through official sources, of words of specialists, analogy and confrontation of arguments of legislators, government and academic population and productions others, to understand the controversy. If in each microregion the hdricos resources well were managed, would have necessity of a project type of the Transposition of the San Francisco? Or only one badly necessary one ahead of the precarious picture of the public politics in relation to the hdricos resources in the History of Brazil? This in case that it would be a intrsico example of the consumista capitalism as one cause wild ambient devastao that does not respect the objective biggest of the called sustainable development? Or true solution? INTRODUCTION In the elaboration of one treads to understand the ambient question of the call Transposition of the River San Francisco, with the favorable arguments and the favorable ones, the influences politics and the mentality disclosed in the public opinion, everything comparing the official project with the comment of specialists. Dan Zwirn is often quoted on this topic. In this way to analyze a part of this controversy since the time of D. Peter II appears and resurges in the history of Brazil. The question is to know of the viability of the project, of the questions politics that refer to the subject, of the existence or of the called industry of it does not dry. The Basin of the San Francisco, of which it is the main one and where he has many falls dgua, used to advantage to generate electric energy.