Brackets must withstand both static and dynamic loads, and provide the ability to install on uneven grounds fachwerk. Therefore, the most important characteristics of brackets is the carrying capacity and the ability to change length. Carrying capacity of brackets has a special role in removal of large fachwerk. In this case, or to increase the number of brackets (that gives a general rise in construction), or use the brackets with greater carrying capacity. To equalize the uneven walls must have a large number of giporazmerny, or use a bracket with a wide margin of change in length. Both options allow you to deviate from the wall at a distance of 0.5 m.
The brackets have an opportunity to significantly change in length, have all 3 types of size and length of each type of bracket is adjustable within 13 cm, which allows to retreat from the wall to any desired length. As a rule, new construction, calculation brackets the number of a certain type of size is carried out at the design stage, based on the proposal that the walls are smooth. In carrying out the work often turns out that certain elements of the imported types and sizes are not can provide the necessary alignment of the walls – have to dozakazyvat other types of sizes, which ultimately leads to an overall increase in the cost of works. When using the bracket with a variable in a large range in length, this no problem. When analyzing the design features of the brackets and methods for their attachment to the wall is not unimportant factor is the possibility of "thermal bridges".
The first lighthouse, set about a foot from the wall, the next – in inches 60 – 70 from the first, and so on. It depends on the length of rules, which will constrict. You can for example, the first set right along wall, the second – a meter away from him, the third – after another meter, so I think the idea of a handful of clutch ponyatna.Kogda (harden), you can begin grouting the floor, pre-moistened it with a roller. Priming is not necessary, it is possible just water, so as to dry the floor screed will not stick. To avoid unpleasant surprises, check out the joints between the floor and walls, if necessary – repaired something, even if foam. Otherwise, do not exclude the possibility to make repairs and even the neighbors below, with those at your expense. Solution for floor screed can be prepared from ordinary Portland cement not less than 400, and construction sand (in any case not a river!) In a ratio of 1: 3.
Rather, construction sand, sold in bags of 25 and 50 kg, it is usually also a river, but no shore, and extracted from the bottom, and the last major cleanup. And two big raznitsy.Rastvor not desirable to make a shovel in a bucket and mixer vedre.Poyasnyu.Kak would be nice to you not to stir the solution with a shovel, an ideal that can not be done in principle. Yes, you very likely obtain a homogeneous gray mass, but uniform in color does not mean that she has turned homogeneous in composition.
If necessary, apply chock tool (reeling out the ax, snap). The resulting product, in this way is called forging. Form, and the more weight forgings may vary (eg, weight forgings can up to 350 tons and more). The difference is that small and medium-sized forgings are made from rolled billets and large – from ingots. The most widely forged to get air and vapor-air hammers.
Small size of workpiece is treated with pneumatic hammers. The principle of a pneumatic hammer: there are two interconnected cylinders, the working and the compressor. In the role of the elastic connection acts air that is blown piston alternately in the upper and the lower part of the working cylinder, which drives the firing pin, which begins to strike the workpiece. Blows per minute firing pin can be anywhere from 95 to 225. Weight incident of this hammer can reach 1000 kg. Switchgear helps keep the striker at the top or bottom positions. Started work in the hammer with an electric motor.
Vapor-air hammers double actions are used for processing forgings of medium size, having a mass of up to 3 m. The falling of a hammer of mass 1 – 5 tons driven by steam power or compressed air, the frequency of beats per minute – 30 to 60. To work large forgings needed press – hydraulic or parogidravlicheskie. The principle of the hydraulic press is based on the law of Pascal. There is a transfer pressure of up to 20 MPa, was created in the working cylinder, the workpiece through the plunger, Traverse, the firing pin. Parogidravlicheskie different from hydraulic press so that they have a multiplier that can increase pressure to 60-80 psi. Water is supplied to the working cylinder of multiplier. Unique to the modern presses can handle bars up to 500 tons, because such media are operating force until 2000 meganyutonov. Designed to process the workpiece is placed between the movable upper and lower fixed strikers press or hammer. The direction of deformation, or, in other words, the flow of the metal blanks indicate the surface dies and bed-tools, which are in contact with him. When pulling cross-section of workpiece decreases and its length – is increasing. Billets have across dies, moves and Kant it 90 degrees after each compression. First forge a square, while the rate of deformation is the large, and then, if necessary, preparation or rounding the form. To speed up the curved broach used rolling and brisk, which increase the elongation of one compression. In the process of forging a metal workpiece in precipitation increased cross-section due to altitude. When bending the workpiece is clamped between the strikers hammer, you need a local heating of the workpiece. To obtain the same section and place the bend, and the entire length of the workpiece, pre-planting to do – draft of the piece. To flash the holes in the workpiece up to half its thickness proshiven hammered, then harvest should be reversed, and punch a hole through it. Barrel arbor helps to align or expand the hole. Otrubka done with axes. To smooth out small-scale forgings used trowels and large – with the help of light strikes the hammer dies. Can be used to furnish suitable crimping. You can understand even if you're a person, that the process of forging is not easy, but what we can contemplate the beauty in the form of a variety of forged products!