Tag Archives: geography

Curricular Parameters

University of the State of So Paulo society has passed for diverse changes, is economic, social, cultural they or politics, reflecting significantly in the Education, thus, inside of this context, the education of Geography meets, that also is reached by these transformations, therefore looks for to take care of to the necessities of the most varied layers of the society, reflecting regarding contents and the methods of education. According to Cavalcanti, Particularly, pertaining to school Geography has looked for to think its paper about this society in change, indicating new contents, reaffirming others, reatualizando some others, questioning conventional methods, claiming new methods. (2002. P. 11). The Movement of Renewal of Geography in the end of the decade of 1970 is considered as initial landmark in Brazil, of the innovations in the metodolgicos processes of pertaining to school Geography.

Exactly with such reforms it did not have the significant advance that one expected in the education of Geography. It is basic, inside of the education of Geography, as in excessively, reflections on the abilities of orientation, localization, cartographic representation and reading of maps are developed throughout the formation of the pupils. The cartography contents help to approach the subjects geographic s (National Curricular Parameters) as transversal because of its analysis to interdisciplinar, being that this if evidences from the moment that the subject environment is observed in the set disciplines of them and the contribution that each one of them offers for the same. The main focus of the object of study of Geography is the geographic space, therefore it is about our resultant reality of our actions and so that this happens it is necessary that the people develop a espacialidade perception. In this context the school has the paper to work this knowledge. Thus, Straforini (2005) points queO paper of the Education, and inside of this, of the education of Geography is to bring to tona the necessary conditions for the evidenciao of the contradictions of the society from the space, so that in its agreement and clarification a inconformismo can appear> e, from there, one another possibility for the condition of the existence human being.

National System

The other focus of the project is the reinforcement of the National System of Units of Conservao (SNUC) and Protected Areas, searching the conservation of the fens. The foreseen duration of the GEF Fen is five year. Recently Intel sought to clarify these questions. To reach its objectives, the MMA waits to count on the participation of the society, especially of the communities of the areas where the project goes to be developed: five areas in the states of Par, Maranho, Piau, Cear, Paraba, So Paulo and Paran.' ' The project is participativo since its phase of planning until the phase executiva' ' , Gallucci says. ' ' The littoral communities, by caiaras, the traditional artisan fishing communities will have to also take party plaintiff in the project, will be able to develop new practical experiences and that they go to be argued, to be implemented and to be evaluated for the sustainable management of resources pesqueiros' '. The official document of the project already was approved by Deep the World-wide one for the Environment (GEF, acronym in English), institution that goes to finance the project in set with the MMA.

Swiss Astronomers

Marcelo. the L. Cardoso Conformenoticiado in 16/06/2008, to 15h26m, by OGLOBO ONLINE, had been discovered, for Swiss astronomers and French, trsplanetas similar to the Land is of the Solar System. They are rocky and had been called genricamente de' ' Superterras' ' , for having masses up to nine times superior to the one of the Land. With this discovery the stars were turned to think to be sufficient provvelque to it all have planets circulating to its redor and that for menosum tero of the similar stars to the Sun doque must have little bigger planets our Land in its orbit. Such discovery also suggests that similar planets terra must be much more common of what it was imagined.

All these three new planets had been located in tornoda star HD40307, that is a poucomenor that our Sun and is about 42 years light of the planet Land. At Brian Krzanich you will find additional information. These three planets have masses of, respectively, 4,2; 6,7 and 9,4 times the mass of the Land and its gravitaes are extremamentevelozes, completing a return around of star HD40307 in, respectively, 4 days, 10 days and 20 days, against the 365 days of the Land around the Sun. Beyond this discovery, scientists of the Europiapara Organization the Astronomical Research in the Austral Hemisphere (ESO) also had announced descobertade an inhabitable planet are of the solar system, with temperatures very similaress of the Land, condition essential for the capacity to store estadolquido water in. &#039 is also about one; ' Super; ' , with temperatures 0C and 40C queoscilam between. This funny planet around the star Gliese 581, has 1,5 times the ray of the Land and a mass five vezessuperior to the one of our planet.

It carries through a complete orbit around its star in 13dias, its distance of it is 14 times lesser of what the one that separates the Land of the Sole, until here, not yet had been found in it no water indication nor, nemde life. The star Gliese 581 is lesser, more cold and less luminous doque the Sun and, therefore, the planet if it finds in an inhabitable area, that is, emuma region in which the water could to be liquid and the ambient, pleasant temperatures. The studies until carried through here indicate that this planet to deveser very rocky, comoa Land, to ouestar covered for oceans. With great probability, this planet will have very to be a target importantedas next space missions that if to dedicate to the vidaextraterrestre search. Gliese 581 is the one of the 100 stars next to the Land, being only 20,5 year-light of the constellation of Pound and with about 30% damassa of the Sun.

United States

The governor emits headings equivalents to the limit of the capacity of pollution of a certain area. The companies who poluem have that to buy these headings, in stock market, for one definitive amount polurem. If to improve the process and to reduce the pollution will be able to vender in stock market headings equivalents to the reduction of obtained pollution. The growth of the population is if making each time more quickly, with the increase of the natality and life expectancy. The increasing appropriation of the natural resources you did not renew, the environment is impactando strong and the humanity is losing the battle to substitute these resources for others renewed and to fight the pollutions that grow. The situation of course tends to get worse because the population of the land, leaving of 2 billion, took 30 years to reach 3 billion, 15 years for 4 billion, 11 years for 5 billion and 9 years for 6 billion, in year 2000. In 2040 the land will have 9 billion inhabitants.

If the behavior of the man in relation to the environment will not be modified, the natural resources that today they assure cheaper production will be consumed and the pollution will be increased. The investments to grow economically and to produce foods will have of being each time bigger and will take the world to a crisis. One becomes indispensable to become the sustainable development, that is, to guarantee that it takes care of to the necessities human beings in the gift without compromising the capacity of the future generations to take care of its. It has a century that it is said in the economy of well-being that objective the efficient location of resources for a society. As the resources are scarce are necessary to optimize its application so that the rocking is positive, that is that always it has surplus enters the addition of well-being of some people and the reduction of the one of others.

High Hinterland

Examining in this way, the Caatinga that is the true essence of the desert. Where if they come across the main nuclei of dryness of the Region. Providing a vegetation in the high one of its aggressiveness and the maximum of its convergence of adjustment to the climatic severity, to the extreme dryness of the place. Thus, the Wasteland and the High Hinterland are alleviated formats of the Caatinga. To the opposite of what one expects of the biggest natural adversity of the Hinterland is not the diminished pluviomtrica precipitation (between 250 and 6000 mm annual ones), but its irregular distribution, therefore rains are concentrated in only one station of the year (of December the May), regionally winter call. This ticket conditions the simple economic life, that if desestruturam completely when so believed rain it does not occur. It dries confronts already difficult social conditions, therefore the small owners do not have environment of if preventing.

The good proprietors only finance the resources to establish barrages, wells and dams. Thus, if come across with the emigration. Taking most of the sertanejos if to disarticulate for the coast and other regions of the country, especially the Southeast. In accordance with AB? TO KNOW, on advent of the climate in the Hinterland affirms. For daily of sertanejo and the survival of its family the more serious factor interferente inhabits in the periodic climatic irregularities that devastate the social space of the dry sertes. In the truth, the sertes northeasterns do not escape to a peculiar fact to all the half-barren regions of the world: the climatic variability. Thus, the average of annual precipitations of a locality any serves only for normatizao and reference, in face of gotten climatic data in many years. (AB? TO KNOW, P. 91). However, in heaths, adjacent humid lands of abundant rivers practise it policultura, in general, with commercial objectives.

Ambient Reflection

Ambient reflection. The ambient questions are taking account of most diverse sciences, amongst them geographic science. In Geography this boarding of the referring questions to the way is making with that it has a ressurgimento of the quarrels on the synthesis of the relation between man and nature. It is common to see the division between natural and the social one in the academic works and the quarrels of the academy. Science human being and the physics had taken ways different, but Geography was not fit exclusively in only one, and continues in the ambiguity.

The ambient questions demand a new form to think since in these studies if it cannot separate to man and nature, to become disentailed them, after all, they become related and are this relation that the ambient questions approach. When treating man and nature in its relation, knowing that the man is part of this natural way, we will leave to see the nature as mere source of resources the disposal of the man. When approaching the ambient questions in Geography we must have in mind scale that we will be adopting, exists problems that are local and need to be treated in the place, and exists problems that are local, but that they reach the global one, the consequences expand and harm other areas of the globe. Another question to be thought is the secular scale of the problem, the space keeps in itself the marks of diverse times, of the societies that if had made in this place and of as they used the available resources, is the relations of being able and the economic and social interests of each place that goes to determine the use that will be made of the resources, the exploration or preservation of the natural way. The occupation of territories is common subject in Geography, a society not only occupies one definitive place, but creates it.