Brazil has a surface of 8.511.596, 3 km. In the scope of this continental extension it encloses since equatorial regions to the north until extratropical areas to the south, differentiated climatic and geomorfologicamente, with an extraordinary ecological diversity. Enclosed amongst the countries of mega biodiversity, withholds a number between 10% and 20% of the total of species of the planet. This known wealth corresponds 22% of the flora, 10% of the amphibians and mammals and 17% of the birds of the world. The Brazilian territorial surface shelters different ecosystems, being distinguished: Amazonian forest the Amaznia shelters the hdrico-fluvial complex greater of the Land, with about 7 million km, being a region of continental dimensions. The Brazilian hilia with about 3,3 million km is overlapped, to a large extent to the area of the hidrogrfica basin of the River Amazon and is characterized for sheltering great biological wealth, with enormous diversity of flora and fauna. One of the last forest reserves is considered of planet. Atlantic forest Engloba one diversified forest ecosystem mosaic with structures and florsticas compositions sufficiently differentiated, following the ground diversity, relives and climatic characteristics of the vast region where it occurs.
These ecosystems are characterized by a great biological diversity and high degrees of endemismo of the flora and the fauna. Closed He is as bigger bioma of Brazil and the South America, occupying more than 2 million km and shelters a rich patrimony of natural resources you renewed, suitable to the hard edficas and hdricas climatic conditions, that determine its proper existence. Pantanal the Pantanal is the biggest subject to flooding land area of the South America, understanding the totality of the hidrogrfica basin of High Paraguay, an area of 496.000 km, of which 393 are located in Brazil. The Brazilian portion of the Basin encloses two independent ecosystems: the part low of the Basin – flooding plains – and the high part of the Basin – or edge/edge, where innumerable species live, since endemic until migratory. Half-barren Caatinga or the 825,143 Caatinga has approximately covered northeast km and part of the Valley of the Jequitinhonha, in Minas Gerais, presenting low plains and chapadas. Considered as only bioma exclusively Brazilian, its suitable vegetation to the water scarcity, is composed of lenhosos vegetables, mixed with great number of cactis and bromlias. The ambient dryness, for the half-barren climate, and inclement sun imposes nocturnal or underground habits. Reptiles and rodents predominate in the region.
It enters the most beautiful birds are plough-blue and acau, a gavio predator of serpents. Forest with Araucrias the Forest with Araucrias, also known as ' ' Complex of the Pinhais' ' , of the predominance of the pine-do-Paran (angustifolia Araucaria), it constitutes a heterogeneous vegetal formation: bush of araucrias, fields and rocky paredes vegetated forming scarps of until 300m of fall it exempts. Zones Costeiras and Manguezal the Brazilian coast has a 7.367 extension of km, presenting an immense ecosystem gamma: fields of dunes, rocky islands, reefs, costes, bays, estuaries, heaths, falsias and sand banks. The Manguezal or fen is a type of littoral vegetation that constitutes one of most typical ecosystems tropicai of great ecological and geologic importance. The fauna, in special the birds and invertebrates, occupies important and diversified ecological niches.